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Retrieved 14 June The Volkswagen Beetle. Osprey Publishing. Winston-Salem Journal. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 2 March Small Car : 42— January Retrieved 24 September The New York Times.
Warfare History Network. Sovereign Media. Retrieved 23 November Der Spiegel. Retrieved 17 May Last edition Beetle. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 3 December December Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 1 November Birth of the Beetle: the development of the Volkswagen by Ferdinand Porsche.
Haynes Publishing. The VW Story. Patrick Stephens. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. Motorbooks International. Truman Library.
The Guardian. United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 April Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 19 March Small on Safety:The designed-in dangers of the Volkswagen.
Auto Motor u. Heft 13 Seite Archived from the original on 7 June Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 April Design and Culture.
Volkswagen Classic in German. Archived from the original on 12 February Archived from the original on 9 August Unique Cars : Retrieved 5 March Practical Motorist.
May Retrieved 1 July Etzold Haynes Publishing Group. Small Wonder. Little, Brown and Co. SE Beetles.
Sunday Tribune. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 6 November Irish Independent. Sunday Times. Rich List Retrieved 11 June Dept of Foreign Affairs.
Archived from the original on 14 November Vollkswagen Group UK. Thanh Nien. Retrieved 22 September Vietnam Net Bridge.
Motor : 28— Der Stern in German. Rudolf Augstein 39 : It Lives Beyond the Rio Grande". SA Motor. Wright, Cedric ed. CAR South Africa.
Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 16 January Battle for the Beetle.
Cambridge, MA : R. Retrieved 27 January Graz: H. Weishaupt Verlag. Archived from the original on 30 June Archived from the original on 1 July Beetle Challenge.
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Color :. Search Reset. Make yourself comfortable in your Volkswagen Beetle. Its extensive equipment, the sure footed handling and many convenient extras ensure that you can enjoy every day with it in a very relaxed way.
Whether you prefer sporty or comfortable, the Beetle is suitable for both. Our leather interior in the Beetle Sport provides good lateral support in all driving situations.
The 2-zone 'Climatronic' in the Beetle Sport automatically regulates the air conditioning in the interior of the vehicle.
All Volkswagen cars registered from the 1st of January are eligible, regardless of model. All new Volkswagen passenger vehicles purchased from an authorised Volkswagen Dealership in Malaysia qualify.
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His first task was to remove an unexploded bomb that had fallen through the roof and lodged itself between some pieces of irreplaceable production equipment; if the bomb had exploded, the Beetle's fate would have been sealed.
After initially building mostly Beetles for the British military, in production transitioned to purely civilian Beetles, for the first time featuring chromed bumpers, hubcaps, and body and running board trim.
Following the British Army-led restart of production and Hirst's establishment of sales network and exports to Netherlands, former Opel manager and formerly a detractor of the Volkswagen Heinz Nordhoff was appointed director of the Volkswagen factory in The engine fires up immediately without a choke.
It has tolerable road-handling and is economical to maintain. Although a small car, the engine has great elasticity and gave the feeling of better output than its small nominal size.
There were other, less-numerous models, as well. The Hebmüller cabriolet officially Type 14A , a sporty two-seater, was built between and ; it numbered The Type 18A , a fixed-top cabriolet, was produced by Austro-Tatra as a police and fire unit; were assembled between January and March On 17 February Beetle No.
Though extremely successful in the s, experiencing its greatest sales growth in North America between and , the Beetle was increasingly faced with stiff competition from more modern designs globally.
The Japanese had refined rear-wheel-drive, water-cooled, front-engine, small cars including the Datsun and Toyota Corona , whose sales in the North American market grew rapidly at the expense of Volkswagen in the late s.
Honda introduced the N , based on the space-efficient transverse-engine, front-wheel-drive layout of the original Austin Mini , to the North American market in late , and upgraded the model to the Honda Civic in The Japanese "big three" would soon dominate compact auto sales in North America.
In Ford introduced its Pinto , which had some market impact as a low cost alternative in the wake of the drop of the US Dollar against the Deutsche Mark that same year.
As the s came to a close, Volkswagen faced increasingly stiff competition from European cars as well.
The Beetle was faced with competition from new designs like the Fiat and Renault 5 , and more robust designs based on the Austin Mini layout such as the Superminis.
German competitors, Ford and Opel also enjoyed strong sales of modern smaller cars like the Ford Escort and Opel Kadett.
Volkswagen's attempts to boost the power of their air-cooled motor to meet the demands of higher highway speeds in the late s, then comply with new pollution control regulations, caused problems for reliability and fuel efficiency that impaired the reputation of the aging design.
Safety issues with the Beetle came under increasing scrutiny, culminating in the release of a rather scathing report. None of these models, aimed at more upscale markets, achieved the level of success of the Beetle.
The over-reliance on a single model, now in decline, meant that Volkswagen was in financial crisis by It needed German government funding to produce the Beetle's replacement.
Production lines at Wolfsburg switched to the new water-cooled, front-engined, front-wheel-drive Golf designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in , sold in North America at the time as the "Rabbit".
The Golf eventually became Volkswagen's most successful model since the Beetle. It was periodically redesigned over its lifetime, with only a few components carried over between generations, entering its seventh generation in ; the Beetle had only minor refinements of its original design.
The Golf did not kill Beetle production, nor did the smaller Polo which was launched a year later. Production of the Beetle continued in smaller numbers at other German factories until 19 January , when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico: markets where low operating cost was an important factor.
After this shift in production, sales in Europe did not stop, but became very low. Beetle sedans were produced for U.
The last Beetle was produced in Puebla , Mexico, in July Production in Brazil ended in , then started again in and continued until The Beetle outlasted most other cars which had adopted the rear-engine, air-cooled layout such as those by Subaru , Fiat , and General Motors.
Porsche's series which originally used some Volkswagen-sourced parts, continued to use the classic rear-engine layout which later became water cooled in the Porsche series, which remains competitive in the third decade of the 21st century.
By , over 21 million Type 1s had been produced, but by , annual production had dropped to 30, from a peak of 1.
Each car included the 1. A mariachi band serenaded production of the last car. In Mexico, there was an advertising campaign as a goodbye for the Beetle.
In one of the ads was a very small parking space on the street, and many big cars tried to use it, but could not.
Another depicted the rear end of a Beetle the year Volkswagen was established in Mexico in the left side of the ad, reading " Erase una vez Other ads also had the same nostalgic tone.
In , Volkswagen prototyped a 1. Volkswagen made only two of these naturally aspirated, air-cooled boxer diesel engines, and installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2.
The Beetle featured a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder, boxer engine in a two-door bodywork featuring a flat front windscreen, accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat—and offering a coefficient of drag of 0.
The bodywork attached with eighteen bolts to its nearly flat platform chassis which featured a central structural tunnel. Front and rear suspension featured torsion bars along with front stabilizer bar—providing independent suspension at all wheels.
Certain initial features were subsequently revised, including mechanical drum brakes, split-window rear windows, mechanical direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox.
Other features, including its distinctive overall shape, endured. In fact, the Beetle was prized for its seemingly unchanged appearance and "marketed to American consumers as the anti-GM and Ford: 'We do not believe in planned obsolescence.
We don't change a car for the sake of change. Its engine, transmission, and cylinder heads were constructed of light alloy.
An engine oil cooler located in the engine fan's shroud ensured optimal engine operating temperature and long engine life, optimized by a thermostat that bypassed the oil cooler when the engine was cold.
Later models featured an automatic choke. Engine intake air passed through a metallic filter, while heavier particles were captured by an oil bath.
After , steering featured a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Indicative of the car's utilitarian design, the interior featured painted metal surfaces, a metal dash consolidating instruments in a single, circular binnacle , adjustable front seats, a fold-down rear seat, optional swing-out rear windows, front windows with pivoting vent windows, heating via air-to-air exchange manifolds operating off the engine's heat, and a windshield washer system that eschewed the complexity and cost of an additional electric pump and instead received its pressurization from the car's spare tire located in the front luggage compartment which was accordingly overinflated to accommodate the washer function.
Throughout its production, VW marketed the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. From and almost exclusively in Europe ,  VW offered an optional version of the Saxomat semi-automatic transmission : a regular 4-speed manual transaxle coupled to an electromagnetic clutch with a centrifugal clutch used for idle.
Subsequently, beginning in in Europe and in the United States , VW offered an optional semi-automatic transmission marketed as Automatic Stick Shift and also called AutoStick , [ citation needed ] which was a 3-speed manual coupled to an electro-pneumatic clutch and torque converter.
It was in that Wilhelm Karmann first bought a VW Beetle sedan and converted it into a four-seated convertible.
The convertible was more than a Beetle with a folding top. To compensate for the strength lost in removing the roof, the sills were reinforced with welded U-channel rails, a transverse beam was fitted below the front edge of the rear seat cushion, and the side cowl-panels below the instrument panel were double-wall.
In addition, the lower corners of the door apertures had welded-in curved gussets, and the doors had secondary alignment wedges at the B-pillar.
The top was cabriolet-style with a full inner headliner hiding the folding mechanism and crossbars. The rear window was tempered safety glass, and after , heated.
Due to the thickness of the top, it remained quite tall when folded. To enable the driver to see over the lowered top, the inside rearview was mounted on an offset pivot.
The convertible was generally more lavishly equipped than the sedan with dual rear ashtrays, twin map pockets, a visor vanity mirror on the passenger side, rear stone shields, and through , wheel trim rings.
Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of After a number of stylistic and technical alterations made to the Karmann cabriolet,  corresponding to the many changes VW made to the Beetle throughout its history , the last of , cabriolets came off the production line on 10 January During this period, myriad changes were made throughout the vehicle beginning with the availability of hydraulic brakes and a folding fabric sunroof in The rear window of the VW Beetle evolved from a divided or "split" oval, to a singular oval.
The change occurred between October and March The brake light function was transferred to new heart-shaped lamps located in the top of the taillight housings.
In , the separate brake lights were discontinued and were combined into a new larger taillight housing. The traditional VW semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicator lamps for North America.
For , the Beetle received what would become one of its more distinctive features, a set of twin chrome tailpipes. Models for North America gained taller bumper guards and tubular overrider bars.
For , the Beetle received a revised instrument panel, and a larger rectangular rear window replaced the previous oval design.
For , significant technical advances occurred in the form of a new engine and transmission. The single-barrel Solex carburetor received an electric automatic choke and the transmission was now synchronized on all forward gears.
The traditional semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicators worldwide. For , the Beetle received a mechanical fuel level gauge in place of the former fuel tap.
The Standard model continued without a gas gauge until the end of the model year. At the rear, larger tail lights were introduced incorporating a separate amber turn signal section to meet new European standards these turn signals remained red in the US market until The former hand-pump style windscreen washer was replaced by a new design using compressed air.
The largest change to date for the Beetle was in the majority of the body stampings were revised, which allowed for significantly larger windows.
The result was a more open, airy, modern look. Models so equipped carried a "" badge on the engine lid. The cc engine was standard for North America.
North America received the engine as standard equipment, but did not receive front disc brakes. These models were identified by a "Volkswagen" badge on the engine lid.
The rear suspension was significantly revised and included a widened track, softer torsion bars and the addition of a unique Z-configuration equalizing torsion spring.
The clutch disc also increased in size and changes were made to the flywheel. New equipment included a driver's armrest on the door and locking buttons on both doors.
Safety improvements included two-speed windscreen wipers , reversing lights in some markets , and a driver's side mirror. In accord with the newly enacted US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , North American models received a dual-circuit brake system, the clear glass headlamp covers were deleted; the headlamps were brought forward to the leading edge of the front fenders, and the sealed-beam units were exposed and surrounded by chrome bezels.
In the rest of the world markets the model retained the older headlights. Another oddity of the North American market Beetle is the rear bumper overriders towel rails — the overriders have a different shape than the older models besides the one-year only engine decklid.
The most noticeable of which were the new larger, higher mounted C-section bumpers. At the rear, new larger taillamps were adopted and were able to accommodate reversing lamps, which were previously separate bumper-mounted units.
Beetles worldwide received the '67 North American style vertical headlamp placement, but with replaceable-bulb headlamps compliant with ECE regulations rather than the US sealed beams.
Other improvements were a new outside gas filler with spring-loaded flap, eliminating the need to open the trunk to refuel. The fuel gauge was integrated with the speedometer and was now electrically actuated rather than cable-operated.
A number of safety improvements were made in order to comply with new American safety regulations: these included trigger-operated outside door handles, a secondary front hood latch, collapsing steering column, soft vent window latches, rotary glove compartment latch and instrument panel knobs labeled with pictographs.
US models received a padded instrument panel that was optional in other markets. To meet North American head restraint requirements, VW developed the industry's first high-back bucket seat.
A new 3-speed semi-automatic transmission with torque converter and vacuum-operated clutch became available mid-production year.
The semi-automatic models received a vastly improved semi-trailing-arm rear suspension also known as "independent rear suspension" although the earlier swing axle Beetles were also independent and eliminated the need for the equalizing torsion spring.
This new rear suspension layout would eventually become an option on later models. Beetles equipped with the automatic were identified with a "VW Automatic" badge on the engine lid and a matching decal in the rear window.
For , the only exterior change was the fuel filler flap no longer had a finger indentation due to a new interior-mounted fuel door release.
In other markets, manual transmission models retained a swing axle independent suspension which would continue until the end of German Beetle production.
In , a new "L" Luxus Package was introduced including, among other items, twin map pockets, dual rear ashtrays, full carpeting, a passenger-side visor vanity mirror, and rubber bumper moldings.
There were two Beetles for the first time in , the familiar standard Beetle and a new, larger version, different from the windscreen forward.
All Beetles received an engine upgrade: the optional cc engine was replaced by a cc with twin-port cylinder heads and a larger, relocated oil cooler.
The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly at the driver and passenger.
For the first time the system was a flow-through design with crescent-shaped air exits fitted behind the rear quarter windows.
Airflow could be increased via an optional 2-speed fan. The standard Beetle was now badged as the VW ; when equipped with the engine, it was badged S, to avoided confusion with the Type 3, which wore VW badges.
The new suspension layout allowed the spare tire to be positioned flat under the trunk floor. Although the car had to be lengthened slightly to accomplish this, it allowed a reduction in turning radius.
To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel [ clarification needed ] was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward.
From the windscreen back the big Beetle was identical to its smaller progenitor, except for having the also new semi-trailing arm rear suspension as standard equipment.
Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package. The convertible was now based on the body.
While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle.
With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price.
An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced. The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf.
A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.
In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator.
The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.
Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels. Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo on the bottom spoke.
In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout.
A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS. Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5.
Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel.
The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: based on the standard Beetle, it was available only in Phoenix Red or Ravenna Green both colors shared with the VW-Porsche with all exterior trim finished in matte black.
A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.
At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface. To comply with tightening emission standards, the cc engine in Japanese and North American markets received Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, rather than the D-Jetronic system formerly used in the VW Type 3 and Type 4.
The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.
The received rack and pinion steering. To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle.
The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.
The convertible was offered in a "triple white" Champagne Edition in Alpine White with white top and interior with the padded deluxe steering wheel, tiger maple wood-grain dash trim and 4.
Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. For , a new Champagne 2nd Edition convertible was launched, available in blue or red metallic paint with white leatherette interior.
Features included the 4. Approximately 1, were produced. In , VW offered an Epilogue Edition of the convertible in triple black with features similar to the Champagne Edition.
This would be the last year of convertible production worldwide as well as the final year for the Beetle in the US and Canada. Volkswagen began its involvement in Ireland when in , Motor Distributors Limited, founded by Stephen O'Flaherty secured the franchise for the country at that year's Paris Motor Show.
The vehicles were assembled in a former tram depot at Shelbourne Road in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for Ballsbridge Motors which is still a Volkswagen dealer.
The first Volkswagen ever assembled outside Germany was built here. In J. Jack Gilder had been fascinated by both the design and engineering of the Beetle when he came across one in Belgium during the war.
The Type 1 was introduced to Japan in , and was imported by Yanase dealerships in Japan. Its exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations , which helped sales.
Several Japanese vehicles were introduced after the Beetle was sold in Japan, using an air-cooled engine and rear mounting of the engine, such as the Subaru , or an engine installed in the front, like the Honda N , the Suzuki Fronte , and the Mitsubishi Minica.
German production of the Beetle took place initially at the parent Wolfsburg plant until the Golf's introduction in , later expanding to the newer Emden and Hanover plants.
Volkswagen's takeover of Auto Union in saw 60, cars per year  being produced on the Audi assembly lines in Ingolstadt until The last German made cars were assembled at Emden in , after which the Puebla, Mexico plant became the principal source of Beetle production.
Brazilian assembly of the Beetle, where it is called " Fusca ", started in , with parts imported from Germany. In production resumed and continued to The Brazilian version retained the —64 body style Europe and U.
This body style was also produced in Mexico until The and s had the era taillights and headlights, fuel tank, but fitted with the up raised bumpers.
Brazilian CKD kits were shipped to Nigeria between and where Beetles were locally assembled. The Brazilian-produced versions have been sold in neighboring South American nations bordering Brazil, including Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru.
In Brazil, the Type 1 never received electronic fuel injection, instead retaining carburetors one or two one-barrels throughout its entire life, although the carburetion differs from engines of different years and specification.
The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended in , after more than 60 years. It was last used in the Brazilian version of the VW Bus , called the "Kombi", and was replaced by a 1.
Volkswagen do Brasil engaged in some string pulling in the early sixties when a law requiring taxis to have four doors and five seats was being considered.
After proving that the average taxi fare only carried 1. Mexican production began in because of agreements with companies such as Chrysler in Mexico and the Studebaker-Packard Corporation which assembled cars imported in CKD form.
In , they began to be locally produced. These models have the larger windshield, rear window, door and quarter glass starting in ; and the rear window from to German built models was used on the Mexican models from to , when it was replaced with the larger rear window used on and later German built Beetles.
This version, after the mids, saw little change with the incorporation of electronic ignition in , an anti-theft alarm system in , a catalytic converter in as required by law , as well as electronic Digifant fuel injection , hydraulic valve lifters, and a spin-on oil filter in The front turn signals were located in the bumper instead of the Beetle's traditional placement on top of the front fenders from the model year on, as they had been on German Beetles sold in Europe from onwards.
Starting in , the Mexican Beetle included front disc brakes, an alternator instead of a generator, and front automatic seat belts.
During the model year, the chrome moldings disappeared leaving body colored bumpers and black moldings instead on some models.
By the start of the model year, exterior chrome or matt moldings were dropped altogether and Volkswagen de Mexico VWdM dropped the Sedan's flow-through ventilation system with all its fittings, notably the exterior crescent-shaped vents behind the rear side windows the same year.
These two versions were sold until mid Independent importers continued to supply several major countries, including Germany, France, and the UK until the end of production in Devoted fans of the car even discovered a way to circumvent US safety regulations by placing more recently manufactured Mexican Beetles on the floorpans of earlier, US-registered cars.
The Mexican Beetle along with its Brazilian counterpart was on the US DOT's Department of Transportation hot list of grey market imports after as the vehicle did not meet safety regulations.
Some of the Mexican Beetles have been registered in the United States since the NHTSA amendment granting the year cutoff where it and its Brazilian counterpart including the T2C can be legally registered in any of the 50 states this means a or earlier Mexican Beetle as of can be registered under the current NHTSA year cutoff exemption.
The end of production in Mexico can be attributed primarily to Mexican political measures: the Beetles no longer met emission standards for Mexico City, in which the ubiquitous Beetles were used as taxicabs; and the government outlawed their use as taxicabs because of rising crime rates, requiring only four-door vehicles be used.
The last Vocho taxis in Mexico City were retired at the end of In the late s consumers strongly preferred more modern cars such as the Mexican Chevy , the Nissan Tsuru , and the Volkswagen Pointer and Lupo.
However, demand for the Beetle was relatively high, especially in the s, with the workforce increasing at the start of the decade.
The price of the base model without even a radio was pegged with the official minimum wage, by an agreement between the company and the government.
Official importation of the Volkswagen Beetle into Australia began in , with local assembly operations commencing the following year.
Volkswagen Australia was formed in , and by locally produced body panels were being used for the first time. When the European Type One body received the larger windows for the model year, Volkswagen Australia decided not to update, but continued to produce the smaller-windowed bodies, with unique features to the Australian versions.
This was due to the limited size of the market and the costs involved in retooling. In , Volkswagen Australia released its own locally designed utilitarian version of the Type 1, the Volkswagen Country Buggy or Type The last Australian-assembled Beetle was produced in July with assembly of other models ending in February Several features from the Super Beetle were grafted onto the South African Beetle S, such as curved windshield, new dashboard, and larger taillights, while retaining the Beetle chassis and mechanicals.
The model was introduced to South Africa in ; it was marketed as the cheapest 1. In late , the sporty SP Beetle arrived — this version received bright red, yellow, or silver paint with black stripes, a front spoiler, wide tyres, and a more powerful engine with twin carburettors and a freer flowing exhaust.
Also new for were rubber bumper strips for all s, and the same taillights with backup lights were now fitted across the range. The bigger-engined model was then phased out around August , leaving only the model in production.
A number of separate cars and designs have each claimed to have been the original "influencers" of Porsche's Volkswagen concept. Hitler saw the car in at an auto show.
These small cars were designed according to the patents by Josef Ganz and featured transverse, two-stroke, two-cylinder engines mounted in front of the rear axle.
In , Tatra built the V prototype, which had an air-cooled flat-twin engine mounted at the rear.
Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras. It also featured a similar central structural tunnel found in the Beetle.
Just before the start of the Second World War, Tatra had ten legal claims filed against VW for infringement of patents.
On Sept 28, , Roy Fedden, most known by his participation in the Bristol Single Sleeve valve engine research, headed by Harry Ricardo , applied for a British patent 'Improvements related to road vehicles', granted GB, 24 July , describing a 2-door, rear-engined car, identical in arrangement and look to VW 'Käfer'.
Espacenet - Original document. It has also been pointed out that the VW Beetle bears a striking resemblance to John Tjaarda 's design for a streamlined, rear-engined car, that he created working for Briggs Manufacturing Company.
The Beetle has been modified for use in drag racing ;  its rearward RR layout weight distribution keeps the weight over the rear wheels, maximizing grip off the starting line.
The car's weight is reduced for a full competition drag Beetle, further improving the grip and also the power-to-weight ratio.
To prevent this, "wheelie bars" were added. The Beetle is also used as the basis for the Formula Vee open-wheel racing category: specifically, the front suspension crossmember assembly the shock absorber mounts are sometimes removed, depending on regulations in the class , and the engine and transaxle assembly usually the earlier swing-axle type, not the later double-jointed axle.
In this configuration, FV would become one of the most popular entry-level motorsports classes of its time.
Volkswagen Beetle-style bodies are fitted to space frame racing chassis, and are used in the Uniroyal Fun Cup , which includes the longest continuous motor-race in the world, the 25 Hours of Spa.
It is an affordable entry-level series that gentleman drivers race. Especially the Austrian sole distributor Porsche Salzburg now Porsche Austria seriously entered the Volkswagen in local and European contests in the s and early s.
Victories were achieved in on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class 5th overall , Austrian championship , January Rallye for overall and class.
Rally of minutes for overall 2nd 1st in class. The fuel crisis, along with the arrival of the Volkswagen Golf Rabbit , put an end to the days of unofficially supported rallying in All vehicles either used for training or actual racing were sold off to privateers, many kept racing with noticeable results until the early s.
Beetles were used in the Trans-Am Series for the two-litre class from to and again in A Volkswagen won its class in the Armstrong in Australia in both and These can be seen in the documentary movie Dust to Glory.
The general concept is to take any Beetle, of any age or model from the 40s through to s, and with minimal restrictions, allowing parts from various years to be interchanged, and of course the cars being prepared to the MSA safety requirements cage, restraints, fire system etc.
Essentially the cars must be air-cooled Beetles any age and parts can be swapped between years and models , with a inch x 6-inch max wheel size with a control tyre.
Engines must be based on a Type 1 case, with no electronic fuel injection or ignition and no forced induction, with an unlimited capacity.
Other regulations apply. Volkswagen has joined up with eClassics to allow beetle owners to convert their car to electric.
The battery will have a total capacity of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle.
For the — car, see Volkswagen New Beetle. For the — car, see Volkswagen Beetle A5. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main article: History of Volkswagen in Ireland. Main article: Volkswagen Beetle in Mexico. The samba brochure. Retrieved 1 June RM 45, RM 63, RM 59, VOC RM 32, Beetle 1.
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