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Magic: The Gathering ist ein bei Wizards of the Coast erschienenes Sammelkartenspiel von Richard Garfield. Es war das erste Spiel dieser Art. Laut der offiziellen Datenbank Gatherer gibt es über verschiedene Karten und nach. Magic: The Gathering (kurz: Magic oder MTG, anfangs auf deutsch als Magic: Die Im Juli erschien das Free-to-play-Game Magic Duels, in dem Karten. Magic Game Night is an out-of-the-box introductory multiplayer Magic experience in a way similar to Planeswalker Decks. But for multiplayer. Ich habe zu Magic Maze ein Video erstellt. In dem Video erkläre ich zunächst die Basics des Spiels. Anschließend Spielen Sophie, Corinna und ich die erste. Game Night ist ein sofort spielbares Magic-Multiplayer-Einführungsprodukt - eine Möglichkeit für begeisterte Magic-Spieler, ihren Freunden das Spiel zu erkl.
Game Night is an out-of-the-box introductory multiplayer Magic experience—a way for an engaged Magic player to introduce friends to the game, or for gaming. Ich habe zu Magic Maze ein Video erstellt. In dem Video erkläre ich zunächst die Basics des Spiels. Anschließend Spielen Sophie, Corinna und ich die erste. Magic:the Gathering Booster, Displays und Zubehör günstig kaufen. Schneller Versand mit DHL / DPD. Games Island. Anmelden. Anmelden. Passwort.
Magic Game - Cookie-EinstellungenDeckboxen Kartenhüllen. Das Shopsystem speichert in diesen Cookies z. So kann eine Regeländerung, die den Ablauf eines Zuges verändert, dazu führen, dass bestehende Karten in dem veränderten Kontext nicht mehr die gewohnten Effekte haben. Eine Änderung der Regeln bedeutet dabei nicht, dass die Regeln Vorrang vor den Kartentexten erhalten, sondern sie steckt vielmehr die Rahmenbedingungen ab, unter denen die Karten funktionieren.
The type of gameplay centered on each color remained consistent with how Five Magics had been and with how Magic: The Gathering would stay in the future, such as red representing aggressive attacks.
Simultaneously, Adkison sought investment into Wizards of the Coast to prepare to publish the game. The company had already committed to completing The Primal Order rulebook, aimed to be compatible with most other role-playing systems on the market, which most investment was drawn to.
He had to bring in a number of local Cornish artists to create the fantasy art for Garfield's cards, offering them shares in Wizards of the Coast in payment.
While the game was simply called Magic through most of playtesting, when the game had to be officially named a lawyer informed them that the name Magic was too generic to be trademarked.
Mana Clash was instead chosen to be the name used in the first solicitation of the game. However, everybody involved with the game continued to refer to it simply as Magic.
After further legal consultation, it was decided to rename the game Magic: The Gathering , thus enabling the name to be trademarked.
By , Garfield and Adkison had gotten everything ready to premiere Magic: The Gathering at that year's Gen Con in Milwaukee that August, but did not have the funds for a production run to have shipped to game stores in time.
Adkison took a single box of cards with a handful of complete decks to the Wizards booth at Origins Game Fair hoping to secure the funds by demonstrating the game.
Among those he demonstrated to were representatives of Wargames West, manufacturers of historical tactics games; the representatives eventually brought their CEO over, and after seeing the game, took Adkison to dinner and negotiated funding terms.
Magic: The Gathering underwent a general release on August 5, Their initial stops were quiet, but word of mouth from previous stops spread, and as they traveled south and west, they found larger and larger crowds anxiously awaiting their arrival.
Despite this, by the end of the convention, they had completely sold out. Magic was an immediate success for Wizards of the Coast.
The success of the initial edition prompted a reissue later in , along with expansions to the game. Arabian Nights was released as the first expansion in December New expansions and revisions of the base game "Core Sets" have since been released on a regular basis, amounting to four releases a year.
By the end of , the game had printed over a billion cards. Beginning in one revision of the core set and a set of three related expansions called a "block" were released every year.
This system was revised in , with the Core Set being eliminated and blocks now consisting of two sets, released biannually. A further revision occurred in , reversing the elimination of the core sets and no longer constraining sets to blocks.
While the essence of the game has always stayed the same, the rules of Magic have undergone three major revisions with the release of the Revised Edition in , Classic Edition in , and Magic in July In , Wizards of the Coast established the " Pro Tour ",  a circuit of tournaments where players can compete for sizeable cash prizes over the course of a single weekend-long tournament.
For a brief period of time, ESPN2 televised the tournaments. By April , 2 billion cards had been sold. A patent was granted to Wizards of the Coast in for "a novel method of game play and game components that in one embodiment are in the form of trading cards" that includes claims covering games whose rules include many of Magic' s elements in combination, including concepts such as changing orientation of a game component to indicate use referred to in the rules of Magic and later of Garfield's games such as Vampire: The Eternal Struggle as "tapping" and constructing a deck by selecting cards from a larger pool.
The legal action was settled out of court, and its terms were not disclosed. While unofficial methods of online play existed previously, [note 1] Magic Online often shortened to "MTGO" or "Modo" , an official online version of the game, was released in A new, updated version of Magic Online was released in April In February , Wizards noted that between the years of and they had printed over 20 billion Magic: the Gathering cards.
Magic: The Gathering cards are produced in much the same way as normal playing cards. The overwhelming majority of Magic cards are issued and marketed in the form of sets.
For the majority of its history there were two types: the Core Set and the themed expansion sets. Under Wizards of the Coast's current production and marketing scheme, a new set is released quarterly.
Various products are released with each set to appeal to different segments of the Magic playing community:. Shards of Alara also debuted mythic rares red-orange , which replace one in eight rare cards on average.
There are also premium versions of every card with holographic foil, randomly inserted into some boosters in place of a common, which replace about one in seventy cards.
As of , the number of consecutive sets set on the same world varies. For example, although Dominaria takes place in one set, the Guilds of Ravnica block will take place over three sets.
In addition, small sets have been removed due to developmental problems and all sets are now large.
Prior to this change, sets were put into two-set blocks, starting with a large set and ending with a smaller one three months later.
These sets consist almost exclusively of newly designed cards. Contrasting with the wide-ranging Core Set, each expansion is focused around a subset of mechanics and ties into a set storyline.
Expansions also dedicate several cards to a handful of particular, often newly introduced, game mechanics.
The Core Sets began to be released annually previously biennially in July coinciding with the name change from 10th Edition to Magic This shift also introduced new, never before printed cards into the core set, something that previously had never been done.
In addition to the quarterly set releases, Magic cards are released in other products as well, such as the Planechase and Archenemy spin-off games.
These combine reprinted Magic cards with new, oversized cards with new functionality. Magic cards are also printed specifically for collectors, such as the From the Vault and Premium Deck Series sets, which contain exclusively premium foil cards.
In , starting with the Eighth Edition Core Set, the game went through its biggest visual change since its creation—a new card frame layout was developed to allow more rules text and larger art on the cards, while reducing the thick, colored border to a minimum.
The card frame was changed once again in Core Set , which maintained the same templating, but made the card sleeker and added a holo-foil stamp to every rare and mythic card to curtail counterfeiting.
For the first few years of its production, Magic: The Gathering featured a small number of cards with names or artwork with demonic or occultist themes, in the company elected to remove such references from the game.
In , believing that the depiction of demons was becoming less controversial and that the game had established itself sufficiently, Wizards of the Coast reversed this policy and resumed printing cards with "demon" in their names.
In , starting with Throne of Eldraine , booster packs have a chance of containing an alternate art "showcase card". This is to increase the reward of buying boosters and making it more exciting.
The way Magic storylines are conceived and deployed has changed considerably over the years. The main premise of Magic is that countless possible worlds planes exist in the Multiverse , and only unique and rare beings called Planeswalkers are capable of traversing the Multiverse.
This allows the game to frequently change worlds so as to renew its mechanical inspiration, while maintaining planeswalkers as recurrent, common elements across worlds.
Players represent planeswalkers able to draw on the magics and entities of these planes to do battle with others. Garfield established enough of this story for the game when it was first published.
With the first sets, most of this story was told through the cards flavor text , and because most of the creatures and the keywords were based on common fantasy tropes dragons with flying, for example , there was no significant driver for a backing narrative.
In some cases, narrative was demanded to help with new gameplay mechanics and keywords that did not fit standard fantasy tropes, but these were still limited to flavor text.
With demand for more expansions, several different teams within Wizards' research and development separately worked on these upcoming sets, with the card designers taking the lead in creating their narratives.
Each of these teams had different approaches for implementing that in the cards. Elias' team wanted this set to focus on the use of colorless artifacts, and came up with the narrative idea of a battle between two brothers skilled in artifact use at a point in time before the other realms of magic had established themselves.
This would tie into both their planned cards as well as help define the differences between the color mana schools better.
Elias' planned out elaborate timelines, but as the set was only cards, most of this was left on paper, giving players only glimpses of the larger picture through flavor text.
Separately to Wizards of the Coast's own attempts at storytelling, in , Wizards gave exclusive licenses to Harper Prism to publish novels, and to Armada, an imprint of Acclaim Entertainment , to publish comic books.
Neither of these were developed in concert with the game and created divergent ideas to the game. Wizards wanted to try to create a more cohesive universe with the next major expansion, Weatherlight , comparable to other works like Star Wars.
Mark Rosewater and Michael G. Ryan developed a long-term story arc that would cross through several expansions as well as into the comics, magazines, and novels.
With the cards, a small team of dedicated writers were used to make sure there were a consistent voice to the flavor text to help emphasize the story elements.
This approach was used through the Onslaught block in , after which Wizards had found that novels were not a sufficient means to build out the details for cards; novels would be focused on how characters change over events, while the game presented a character at a single moment, and a novel could not flesh out all the other supporting elements that the card designers needed to build their sets without weighing down the readers.
Following Onslaught , the narrative of Magic: The Gathering took a more distanced approach. Once an idea for an expansion is presented, preliminary work is done simultaneously by the research and development team and by the creative staff to build out the basic gameplay concepts and the setting of that expansion, respectively.
Once both sides agree to that, the two teams then proceed primarily on individual routes towards their end production.
But cards also introduce their own characters that might not appear in the novels. In short, the Magic creative team and the novelists work largely in parallel and inform each other as much as possible.
In , the company saw that even with continued growth in player numbers, printed novel sales had fallen greatly and ebook sales remained flat, and made the decision to discontinue the larger narrative works in favor of having the creative team provide story coverage and shipments as of the "Uncharted Realms" column.
This approach continued through Kelman's task was to assemble all of the lore established from previous card sets and the published novels, comics, and other materials as to create the game's "cosmology" or the story bible that established all the known planes and elements of those planes, the individual Planeswalkers and their connections to others, and other details that then could be passed not only to the teams developing new cards but also to those expanding the franchise with new novels and other content.
Each card has an illustration to represent the flavor of the card, often reflecting the setting of the expansion for which it was designed.
Much of Magic 's early artwork was commissioned with little specific direction or concern for visual cohesion. Each block of cards now has its own style guide with sketches and descriptions of the various races and places featured in the setting.
A few early sets experimented with alternate art for cards. However, Wizards came to believe that this impeded easy recognition of a card and that having multiple versions caused confusion when identifying a card at a glance.
As Magic has expanded across the globe, its artwork has had to change for its international audience. Artwork has been edited or given alternate art to comply with the governmental standards.
For example, the portrayal of skeletons and most undead in artwork was prohibited by the Chinese government until Wizards of the Coast has introduces specials cards and sets that include cross-promotional elements with other brands typically as promotional cards, not legal for Standard play and may be unplayable even in eternal formats.
The rulebook was published also in to correspond with the newer expansion's release. A article in USA Today suggested that playing Magic might help improve the social and mental skills of some of the players.
The article interviewed players' parents who believe that the game, similar to sports, teaches children how to more gracefully win and lose.
Magic also contains a great amount of strategy and vocabulary that children may not be exposed to on a regular basis. Parents also claimed that playing Magic helped keep their children out of trouble, such as using illegal drugs or joining criminal gangs.
On the other hand, the article also briefly mentions that Magic can be highly addictive, leading to parents worried about their children's Magic obsession.
Jordan Weisman , an American game designer and entrepreneur, commented,. By combining the collecting and trading elements of baseball cards with the fantasy play dynamics of role-playing games, Magic created a whole new genre of product that changed our industry forever.
In , The Guardian reported that an estimated 20 million people played Magic around the world and that the game had a thriving tournament scene, a professional league and a weekly organized game program called Friday Night Magic.
Of the franchise brands, only Magic and Monopoly logged revenue gains last year". Already, according to Hasbro, a billion games have been played online".
In addition, several individuals including Richard Garfield and Donato Giancola won personal awards for their contributions to Magic.
The success of Magic: The Gathering led to the creation of similar games by other companies as well as Wizards of the Coast themselves.
Companion Games produced the Galactic Empires CCG the first science fiction trading card game , which allowed players to pay for and design their own promotional cards, while TSR created the Spellfire game, which eventually included five editions in six languages, plus twelve expansion sets.
Other similar games included trading card games based on Star Trek and Star Wars. There is an active secondary market in individual cards among players and game shops.
This market arose from two different facets: players seeking specific cards to help complete or enhance their existing decks and thus were less concerned on the value of the cards themselves, and from collectors seeking the rarer cards for their monetary value to complete collections.
Common cards rarely sell for more than a few cents and are usually sold in bulk. Foil versions of rare and mythic rare cards are typically priced at about twice as much as the regular versions.
Some of the more sought-after rare and mythic rare cards can have foil versions that cost up to three or four times more than the non-foil versions.
A few of the oldest cards, due to smaller printings and limited distribution, are highly valued and rare. This is partly due to the Reserved List, a list of cards from the sets Alpha to Urza's Destiny — that Wizards has promised never to reprint.
The most expensive card that was in regular print as opposed to being a promotional or special printing is the Black Lotus , copies of which are worth thousands of dollars at minimum.
In , a "Pristine 9. The secondary market started with comic book stores, and hobby shops displaying and selling cards, with the cards' values determined somewhat arbitrarily by the employees of the store.
Hobbyist magazines, already tracking prices of sports trading cards , engaged with the Magic secondary market by surveying the stores to inquire on current prices to cards, which they then published.
If a card was played in a tournament more frequently, the cost of the card would be higher in addition to the market availability of the card.
TCGPlayer developed a metric called the TCG Market Price for each card that was based on the most recent sales, allowing for near real-time valuation of a card in the same manner as a stock market.
Today, the secondary market is so large and complex, it has become an area of study for consumer research called Magic: The Gathering finance.
Active Magic financial traders have gained a sour reputation with more casual Magic players due to the lack of regulations, and that the market manipulations makes it costly for casual players to buy single cards simply for purposes for improving decks.
As of late , Wizards of the Coast has expressed concern over the increasing number of counterfeit cards in the secondary market.
There are several examples of academic, peer-reviewed research concerning different aspects of Magic: The Gathering. One study examined how players use their imaginations when playing.
This research studied hobby players and showed how players sought to create and participate in an epic fantasy narrative.
Magic: The Gathering video games, comics, and books have been produced under licensing or directly by Wizards of the Coast.
Arena of the Planeswalkers is a tactical boardgame where the players maneuver miniatures over a customizable board game, and the ruleset and terrain is based on Heroscape , but with an addition of spell cards and summoning.
The original master set includes miniatures that represent the five Planeswalkers Gideon, Jace, Liliana, Chandra, and Nissa as well as select creatures from the Magic: The Gathering universe.
There are currently two official video game adaptions of Magic: The Gathering for online play. Magic: The Gathering Online , first introduced in , allows for players to buy cards and boosters and play against others including in officially-sanctioned tournaments for prize money.
Magic: The Gathering Arena , introduced in , is fashioned after the free-to-play Hearthstone , with players able to acquire new cards for free or through spending real-world funds.
Arena currently limited online events with in-game prizes, but is currently being positioned by Wizards of the Coast to also serve as a means for official tournament play, particularly after the COVID pandemic.
Both Online and Arena are regularly updated with new Core and Expansion cards as well as all rule changes made by Wizards. In addition, Wizards of the Coast has worked with other developers for various iterations of Magic: The Gathering as a card game in a single-player game format.
Microprose developed Magic: The Gathering and its expansions, which had the player travel the world of Shandalar to challenge computer opponents, earn cards to customize their decks, improve their own Planeswalker attributes and ultimately defeat a powerful Planeswalker.
Stainless Games developed a series of titles starting with 's Magic: The Gathering — Duels of the Planeswalkers and culminating with 's Magic Duels , a free-to-play title.
The Duels series did not feature full sets of Magic cards but selected subsets, and were initially designed around a challenging single-player experience coupled with an advanced artificial-intelligence computer opponent.
Later games in the series added in more deck-building options and multiplayer support. Additional games have tried other variations of the Magic: The Gathering gameplay in other genres.
Acclaim developed a real-time strategy game Magic: The Gathering: BattleMage in , in which the player's abilities were inspired by the various cards.
This was released in December as a freemium game and continues to be updated with new card sets from the physical game. In addition to official programs, a number of unofficial programs were developed to help user to track their Magic: The Gathering library and allow for rudimentary play between online players.
These programs are not endorsed by Wizards of the Coast. Harper Prism originally had an exclusive license to produce novels for Magic: The Gathering , and published ten books between and Around , the license reverted to Wizards, and the company published its own novels to better tie these works to the expansion sets from to about The ongoing series started in February Wizards of the Coast, which owned the rights to Magic: The Gathering , took active steps to hinder the distribution of the game and successfully shut out PGI Limited from attending GenCon in July Patent No.
Four official parody expansions of Magic exist: Unglued , Unhinged , Unstable , and Unsanctioned  Most of the cards in these sets feature silver borders and humorous themes.
The silver-bordered cards are not legal for play in DCI-sanctioned tournaments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Collectible card game. The back face of a Magic card, showing the "Color Wheel" central to the game's mechanics.
Play media. Main article: Magic: The Gathering rules. See also: List of Magic: The Gathering sets. Main article: Multiverse Magic: The Gathering.
See also: List of Magic: The Gathering artists. See also: Magic: The Gathering video games.
See also: List of Magic: The Gathering novels. This section possibly contains unsourced predictions , speculative material, or accounts of events that might not occur.
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Retrieved February 28, Kim E Lumbard. Archived from the original on November 6, Archived from the original on October 6, The Daily Dot.
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The rule was added to all multiplayer Magic Online later. Retrieved July 30, Seattle to Alaska cruise: www. Event occurs at July 10, December 25, Retrieved June 14, Retrieved April 9, Retrieved April 18, June June 23, Retrieved July 9, The New Yorker.
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